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A geoökológia és a geoökológiai térképezés néhány elvi és gyakorlati kérdése

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A geoökológia és a geoökológiai térképezés néhány elvi és gyakorlati kérdése
Mezősi, Gábor
Kevei-Bárány, I.
Balogh, I.
Mucsi, László
Farsang, Andrea
Magyar Földrajzi Társaság
GA Mathematical geography. Cartography / földméréstan, geodézia, térképészet
QH540 Ecology / ökológia
Tartalmi leírás:
The geographical environment can be investigated from several aspects:
- in the biological (ecological) approach emphasis is put on the biotic factors of the environment or
on the structure itself;
- in the geographical approach research concentrates on the abiotic factors and functions; and
- the technological or planning trend focuses the analysis on the economical-technical background of
To distinguish between the first two trends and the related disciplines, the terms (bio) ecology and
geoecology are in use. The two concepts differ in handling the role of abiogenic and biogenic factors. In
the past decade there was an intension to define geoecology as the study of abiotic factors and of issues
concerning the functioning of the physical environment, while landscape ecology investigates the
biogenic factors and problems of spatial organisation, structure. Several authors, however, use these
concepts interchangeably.
The problem is more complicated than that. On the other hand, the concept landscape is narrower or
different from that covered by landscape ecology. The latter studies the arrangement of the ecosystem
and the flows of matter and energy between its componensts. Here the question is not simply whether or
to what extent man-made elements are included in landscape functioning. On the other hand, there is a
significant difference between the landscape and the (physical) geographical environment ? the true
carrier of system properties. This difference of contents was clarified by S. Marosi (1981). In his
opinion, the landscape consists of geotopes (naturally including biotopes), while the (geographical)
environment is built up of ecotopes and ? as a spatial unit ? from ecochores. It is the activity of the
society related to the socio- or econotopes that makes the geotopes exotopes. In the Marosi model the
relationship between landscape and environment is clearly defined. No similar is applied in either the
German or in the English-language literature. At the same time, the often used term landscape ecology is
difficult to interpret from this standpoint, since they are almost mutually exclusive categories. Spatial
pattern is often emphasised in the investigation of the landscape, of the concrete environment and the
implications for functioning are neglected, the various ?topes? are not regarded as aspects of functioning.
In the same manner it would be a mistake to restrict the study only to the biogenic or to the abiogenic
factors or to disregard functional or system properties. In our opinion ? after the scheme by H. Leser
(1984) ? the German and English schools and the Hungarian views can be reconciled as shown in Fig. l.
The size of the landscape ecology frame in the figure may change with various approaches and even
it location may vary with the emphasis being on spatiality (like in the Russian literature) or on systems
approach (like in the concept of English speaking researchers). Although it contradicts rigid
delimitations, geoecology ? among others for the above reasons ? should cover the analysis of biotic
factors too (hence is the uncertainty of delimitation), since they reflect the joint impact of abiotic factors
and also point to human influences.
Hopefully, the series of examples in the paper call attention to the flexibility of categories. There is
communication between them, e.g. geoecology may also reveal structural properties and landscape
ecology may answer functional questions of the physical environment. In this respect, the distinction
between the two concepts may seem groundless. In our opinion, the in dependent treatment of
geoecology separate from landscape ecology, a discipline with more traditions and broader contents, can
be justified by the increasing importance of issues of environmental functioning, assessment of the partial potentials of the physical environment (i.e. landscape capacity controlled by landscape budget),
data aquisition from field measurements and other practical requirements.
The principles of geoecological mapping outlined here (Figure 2) reach beyond the 1:25,000 scale
geoecological mapping in Germany, both in methodology and in objective4s. It seemed necessary to
apply ? in addition to the conventional field surveys, mapping and laboratory techniques ? GIS for data
storage and processing and for the regional extension of results automated aerial photo interpretation
(with scanner) and other remote sensing methods. Although complex systems (such as the landscape) can
only be fragmented in a holistic approach, efficiency required the application of a GIS.
In the paper three examples are used to illustrate the opportunities to geoecological mapping. The first
of them concerns the reclamation or optimal utilisation of surfaces partially used for agricultural
purposes, while the second identifies areas affected by hazards, soil erosion, and the third deals with
physical loadability through recreation.
Mezősi, Gábor and Kevei-Bárány, I. and Balogh, I. and Mucsi, László and Farsang, Andrea (1993) A geoökológia és a geoökológiai térképezés néhány elvi és gyakorlati kérdése. Földrajzi Közlemények, 117 (3). pp. 163-176. ISSN 0015-5411